SSH public key authentication works with a pair of generated encryption keys. The public key is shared and used to encrypt messages. The private key is kept safe and secure on your system and is used to read messages encrypted with the public key.
Configure SSH using the command line. bash is the common shell on Linux and Mac OS X and the Git for Windows installation adds a shortcut to Git Bash in the Start Menu. Other shell environments will work, but are not covered in this article.
Complete steps including troubleshooting guidance continues in "Use SSH key authentication"